Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and Infertility – Video

What Is AMH? How Can The CHR Improve AMH Levels?

Dr. Norbert Gleicher and Dr. Vitaly Kushnir explain Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and detail ways the CHR can improve AMH levels.

Video Transcript

Title: Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and Infertility

Speaker: Dr. Norbert Gleicher and Dr. Vitaly A. Kushnir

What is AMH’s physiological role in female reproduction?

Dr. Gleicher: AMH is a little bit more of a complex issue than that because AMH is a response to a number of different things, but probably most importantly, a response to how much follicles, or how aggressively follicles, are being recruited into maturation from their dormant state as primordial follicles into the active maturation stage. If that process is very active, and a lot of follicles are starting to journey towards maturation, AMH goes up and holds back further recruitment, and therefore, in older women where there’s already very little recruitment going on, AMH is getting lower and lower and lower. But when AMH is high, it usually means that it is holding back recruitment, meaning that there are still lots of follicles there to be recruited and go into maturation.

What is the difference between FSH and AMH?

Dr. Kushnir: AMH is a more direct reflection of what’s happening in the ovary because AMH is secreted by the antral and pre-antral follicles that are developing within the ovary. The more of those follicles there are, the higher the AMH levels. FSH is the signal that the brain sends to the ovary to try to increase steer ootidogenesis and production of follicles in the ovary, so FSH levels are actually elevated in women who have few follicles, and low or normal in women who have many follicles in their ovaries. FSH and AMH interact within the ovary in that FSH, or AMH actually, holds back the recruitment of primary follicles by FSH.

How are normal AMH levels defined?

Dr. Kushnir: The normal AMH level is dependent on the woman’s age, and, for example, somebody who is in her 20s, like many of our egg donors are, their AMH level should be about 4 nanograms/ml; whereas somebody who is older, for example woman in her mid-30s, a normal level can be a bit lower, maybe 2.5, and somebody who is in their 40s can have an even lower AMH level than this. So it’s important to view AMH is context of a patient’s age to determine what is normal for the individual.

What are the implications of low AMH levels?

Dr. Kushnir: Low AMH levels reflect the number of antral and pre-antral follicles that are available in the ovary. This is not a perfect predictor of somebody’s fertility potential, but it gives us a rough idea of how many eggs and embryos we might be able to get with fertility treatment or with IVF.

Can women get pregnant with very low AMH levels?

Dr. Kushnir: Yes, we’ve seen women with even undetectable levels of AMH getting pregnant. Just because we can’t measure the AMH level doesn’t mean there are no eggs left in the ovary — it just means there are fewer of them there. But women do get pregnant with even undetectable levels of AMH, particularly younger women, have a much better chance if their AMH levels are low compared to older women.

Can AMH levels be improved?

Dr. Kushnir: Yes, we think that functional ovarian reserve and AMH levels can be improved. And CHR has done some investigation in this area, and we’ve found that DHEA supplementation can help improve AMH levels and the functional ovarian reserve.

What would you advise women with very low AMH levels?

Dr. Kushnir: Well, one of the main things to think about is, first of all, are there underlying causes for having this low AMH, so we do a very thorough investigation before we embark on fertility treatment to figure out if there are reasons for why somebody’s AMH level is abnormally low, because there may very well be genetic reasons or medical reasons that pre-dispose them to develop those AMH levels in the first place. Some of those medical conditions can put them at risk for miscarriages and various pregnancy related problems if they’re not identified and appropriately treated. Well, the most important thing I tell my patients is not to delay appropriate investigation and treatment, because in most women with pre-mature ovarian aging, which is evidence by low AMH levels, the situation only gets worse with time, it doesn’t get better. So the most important thing is not to delay appropriate investigation and treatment.

  • AMH levels reflect the number of eggs being recruited into maturation process.
  • AMH levels should be looked at on an age-based scale, in order to assess a woman’s ovarian reserve correctly.
  • Low AMG means a woman’s ovarian reserve is low, but some women can still get pregnant with even undetectable AMH levels.
  • Women diagnosed with low AMH levels should not delay fertility treatment.

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Norbert Gleicher, MD, leads CHR’s clinical and research efforts as Medical Director and Chief Scientist. A world-renowned reproductive endocrinologist, Dr. Gleicher has published hundreds of peer-reviewed papers and lectured globally while keeping an active clinical career focused on ovarian aging, immunological issues and other difficult cases of infertility.