Published in Endocrinology.

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) produced by ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) plays a crucial role in ovarian function. It is used as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker of fertility as well as for pathophysiological conditions in women. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism for regulation of AMH expression in GCs using primary mouse GCs and a human GC tumor-derived KGN cell line. We find that growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic factor 15 (BMP15) together (GDF9 + BMP15), but not when tested separately, significantly induce AMH expression in vitro and in vivo (serum AMH). Our results show that GDF9 + BMP15 through the PI3K/Akt and Smad2/3 pathways synergistically recruit the coactivator p300 on the AMH promoter region that promotes acetylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac), facilitating AMH/Amh expression. Intriguingly, we also find that FSH inhibits GDF9 + BMP15-induced increase of AMH/Amh expression. This inhibition occurs through FSH-induced protein kinase A/SF1-mediated expression of gonadotropin inducible ovarian transcription factor 1, a transcriptional repressor, that recruits histone deacetylase 2 to deacetylate H3K27ac, resulting in the suppression of AMH/Amh expression. Furthermore, we report that ovarian Amh mRNA levels are significantly higher in Fshβ-null mice (Fshβ-/-) compared with those in wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, ovarian Amh mRNA levels are restored in Fshβ-null mice expressing a human WT FSHβ transgene (FSHβ-/-hFSHβWT). Our study provides a mechanistic insight into the regulation of AMH expression that has many implications in female reproduction/fertility.

Norbert Gleicher, MD, leads CHR’s clinical and research efforts as Medical Director and Chief Scientist. A world-renowned specialist in reproductive endocrinology, Dr. Gleicher has published hundreds of peer-reviewed papers and lectured globally while keeping an active clinical career focused on ovarian aging, immunological issues and other difficult cases of infertility.

Citation Page #: 159(9):3433-3445.
Journal: Endocrinologoy
Author Publication: Roy S, Gandra D, Seger C, Biswas A, Kushnir VA, Gleicher N, Kumar TR, Sen A.
Publication Link: https://academic.oup.com/endo/article/159/9/3433/5060455
Date: 2018